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*Anatomy & Physiology: Topic Highlights

This is a page of resources compiled by the university's A&P tutors for study purposes.

Characteristics of Life

  • Organization
  • Metabolism
  • Evolution
  • Response to stimuli
  • Manipulation of environment
  • Growth
  • Reproduction

Living things do these, non-living things don't.

Homeostasis

Regulation of the internal environment.

Positive feedback systems: maximizes; receptor, control center, effector

Negative feedback systems: minimizes; receptor, control center, effector

Terminology and Directionality

Anatomical position

Supine/ Prone

Right/ Left

Proximal/ Distal

Superior (Cephalic)/ Inferior (Caudal)

Medial/ Lateral

Anterior (Ventral) / Posterior (Dorsal)

Superficial/ Deep

Abdominal Subdivisions

Planar Cuts

Body Cavities

Serous Membranes

Chemistry

Basic Chemistry

Periodic Table information (Mass and Atomic Number)

Atomic Structure

Bonding

Name the three types

Chemical Reactions

Types of reactions

Equilibrium

Energy in Reactions

Rates

Acid-Base chemistry

pH and pOH

Lewis Acids

Lewis Bases

Bronsted-Lowry Acids

Bronsted-Lowry Bases

Salts

Buffers

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

Cells and Tissues

Cells and Tissues

Cells combine to make tissues. Tissues combine to make organs. Organs combine to make systems. Systems combine to make the body.

Cell Parts

 Plasma Membrane

Cytosol

Fluid

Cytoplasmic inclusions

Cytoskeleton

Microtubules

Actin filaments

Intermediate filaments

Nucleus

Nuclear Envelope

Chromatin

Nucleolus

Organelles:

Ribosomes

Rough and Smooth ER

Golgi apparatus

Secretory vesicle

Lysosome

Peroxisome

Proeasomes

Mitochondria

Centrioles

Spindle Fibers

Cilia

Flagellum

Microvilli

Membrane Transport

Protein Synthesis

Transcription

mRNA

tRNA

rRNA

Enzymes

Translation

 

Nutrition

Fats

Saturated vs unsaturated

Carbohydrates/Sugars

Fructose

lactose

sucrose

Proteins

Genetics

X and Y

Recessive and Dominant

Sex linked

Punnett Squares

Genetic Disorders

Sex disorders XXY, Klinefelter's, etc.

Mutation

Development

Stages of development of the fetus

Integumentary System

Embryonic Tissue

Layers

Epithelial Tissues

Function

Types:

Compare and contrast the eight different types of epithelium (structure and function). Give an example of each type.

Cell Connections

What are the five ways cells are connected? How does each one work? Compare and contrast.

Glands

Function

Types

What are the four ways to classify glands?

Connective Tissues

What are the structures and functions of each type of connective tissue? Give an example of where each can be found.

Mesenchyme

Loose

Dense (there are four different types of dense connective tissue, address each one.)

Special Connective tissues (there are two)

Cartilage (there are three)

Bone (there are two)

Blood (what are the components of blood?)

Muscular Tissue

What are the three types? How are they different in structure and function?

Nervous Tissue: Nervous tissue is made up of the neurons and neuroglia

Function of neurons and neuroglia

What are the parts of a neuron?

Membranes

Function

What are the three types?

Inflammatory Mediators

Function

Relationship to tissue -- why are they discussed in this chapter?

What are these mediators?

Tissue Repair

There's inflammation. Now what?

What are the three kinds of cells in terms of repairability?

Skin

Layers of the skin?

 

Epidermis: What are the layers? What are a few identifying structures or features of each layer?

Thick Skin vs Thin Skin?

Skin color factors?

Albinism?

 

Dermis: What are the layers? Give a few identifying features of each one.

Subcutaneous: What are the three primary cell types in the subcutaneous layer?

 

Accessory Structures

Hair: Name three types of hair. Name the structures and some features of these structures.

Glands: What are the two types? Name the subdivisions for the appropriate gland.

Nails: Name the parts of the nail. What are nails for?

Skeletal System

Bones

Name the structural features of the bone

Bone Histology (tissue types in the bone)

Name the types of bone

Extra Credit Fun Fact: What is the one bone in the body that isn't connected to another one (called a "floating bone")?

Joints

Types of joints

      Pivot

      Ball and Socket

      Hinge

      Gliding

      Saddle

Motions

      Circumduction

      Rotation

      Adduction/Abduction

      Extension/Flexion

            Hyperextention

            Lateral Extension/Flexion

Muscular System

Insertion

The part of the muscle that moves

Origin

the part of the muscle that doesn't move

Naming

Sliding Filament Theory

Nervous System

Anatomy of a nerve

Axon

Nerve Body

Glial Cell

How do signals travel?

Endocrine System

Enzymes

Glands

Immunity?

the Ig's

Antibodies

Circulatory and Cardiac System

Blood

Content

types of blood cells

Heart

Chambers

Valves

Arteries

Veins

Arteries

Veins

Path of blood through the circulatory system

Lymphatic System

Lymph nodes

Function of lymph

Respiratory System

Branches

Lungs

Alveoli

Gas transfer

Digestive System

Organs

Enzymes

Path of food

Urinary System

Kidneys

Nephrons

ducts

Bladder

Reproductive System

Male

Testes

tubes

Female

Ovaries

Uterus

tubes

How To Use This Page

This page is a summary of the material. It functions as a quick reference, or a study guide, NOT a replacement for reading the chapters or going to lecture. These are things that are emphasized in the course -- the basics that you should be familiar with in terms of identifing and explaining concepts and processes.